WHO 2017 Zagreb motions

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The Winter Hollyday Open is a tournament organised by the Croatian HDD (Hrvatsko Debatno Društvo) and has since grown to be one of the most important European (and probably wider) tournament in the WSDC debate format. It is organised in December.
Here are the debate motions from the 2017 edition of the WHO:

This house believes that every region should have the right to independent statehood if a majority of its members support this
This house believes that large tech companies should refuse to release data on their customers to governments even if it’s against the law
This house believes in regional trading blocs rather than global free trade
This house would prohibit all research that tries to establish a relationship between race/ethnicity and intelligence
This house supports a greater military presence in East Asia
This house would grant native peoples copyright over depictions of their culture
This house believes that the majority ownership of sports clubs should go to local communities
This house would ban global financial speculation on land and property

WUDC 2018 – Mexico

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The Worlds Universities Debating Championship 2018 is hosted by Mexico this year. The tournament will start on the 27th December 2017 and will end on the 4th of January, with the Grand Finals on the 3rd of January 2018.
There are several teams on site that will allow us to get great info on what is going on and of course we will report with the always updated debate motions from the tournament.

This is the schedule that the organisers published on their website:

Here are the motions:

Round 1 motion: This house would ban all communication tech companies (such as Google, Apple, Facebook, Whatsapp, etc.) from encrypting their users data, including the content of their communications, in such a way that the company cannot retrieve that data even under a court order.
Round 2 info slide:
For the purpose of this debate, “job security legislation” refers to laws intended to make businesses fire employees less often. Its goal is to disincentives the termination of existing employees, whether the business employs an alternative individual to replace them or not. Examples of this legislation include, but are not limited to, increased severance pay and detailed cause requirements for terminating employment. Protections against discriminatory termination or similar laws do not fall under this term. Round 2 motion: This house supports job security legislation.
Round 3 info slide:
The current criterion in the US as to whether a police offices used excessive force is whether he acted reasonably given his perspective at the time and without the benefit of hindsight. Academic research has shown that when using this criterion, juries consistently conclude that officers harming or killing black individuals acted reasonably in almost all circumstances. Motion: This house would redefine the criterion for excessive force in the US to be any use of beyond what is reasonable given all the facts of the case, including the benefit of hindsight (e.g. whether the individual had a gun, not whether it was reasonable to believe he had a gun).
Round 4 Info slide: 

The art that you see in a museum typically comes from one of the following sources: i) that museum’s permament collection that’s always on display, ii) that museum’s permament collection that is mostly kept in storage and may occasionally be displayed (the largest museums usually display as little as 5% of their collections); iii) pieces lent to that museum on a temporary basis by another museum iv) pieces donated or lent by private individuals or institutions. MOTION: This house would limit the amount of time that a museum can display a given piece of art to 3 months out of every 10 year period, rather than allow museums to display their works as long as they choose.
Round 5: This house would allow citizens to vote on individual bills in place of their representative, with the representative retaining the voting power of those of their constituents who did not directly vote on that specific bill.
Round 6 info slide: CRISPR is currently the only existing technology that allows cheap, fast and targeted gene edition in living organisms. It potentially allows for heritable* changes, though so far very little research on such heritable changes in humans has occurred. * heritable changes are changes that can be passed on from parents to their children. Round 6 motion: This house believes that all states should mandate that research on and use of CRISPR technology be exclusively carried out by institutions funded entirely by the state.
Round 7 motion: This house, as Iran, would cease all support for military groups in the Middle East (e.g. Hezbollah, Hamas, Houthis, etc.).
Round 8 motion: This house prefers a world in which all individuals who have achieved a middle class standard of living choose to pursue the highest level of achievement in their chosen career, rather than a wold in which those individuals priorities day-to-day enjoyment over work.
Round 9 motion: This house would not allow out of court settlements for workplace discrimination and harrasment.

Open quarters Info slide: Individuals with Anti-Social Personality Disorder (ASPD), formerly known as sociopathy, have a highly reduced ability to feel empathy. People with ASPD do potentially have the ability to feel empathy, and, as with other emotions, their capacity to feel empathy can be increased based on exposure to certain experiences and relationships, yet is unlikely to reach what is considered a “normal” level.
Motion: This house, as a parent of a child with ASPD, would enable and support that child given that child’s aims based on their current psychological makeup, instead of trying to make them more empathic.

Open semifinal motion:
This house would create an international court with the ability to classify national debt as “Odious Debt” at the debtor nation’s request and remove the obligation of that nation to pay.

Open Final motion:
This House would rather save the live of a single child over extending the life of 5 adults by 10 years
In democratic post-colonial states, This house believes that opposition parties to the party of independence should claim and use the legacy of anti-colonial resistance.
EFL finals motion:
This house believes that it is better for the general population to be more optimistic about the current and future state of the nation (including societal cohesion, peace processes, the state of the economy) than an objectively accurate judgement.

EUDC 2017 Tallinn motions

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Round 1: This house believes that the US should ban extremist groups (e.g. the KKK and neo-Nazi groups)
Round 2: This house believes that the WTO should allow developing countries to impose policies aimed at protecting domestic industries, even at the expense of harming international trade.

Round 4: This house believes that states should significantly fund female-only tech companies

Round 3: THR the rise of “Sharing Culture” Info slide: “Sharing Culture” (a culture which encourages the frequent posting of both mundane and intimate details of ones life on social media platforms, and the commenting on and reacting to others posts of this nature)

Round 5: This house, as Israel, supports the Jewish People’s Intelligence Services Doctrine. Info slide: The Jewish People’s Intelligence Services should have a significant responsiblity not only to Israeli citizens’ security, ut also to the security of Jewish communities abroad. If this doctrine were adopted, Israel would use significant resources and launch potentially violent operations in order to keep Jewish people safe internationally.

Round 6: This house supports  universities treating students as customers (eg by allocating significant resources to improving students lifestyles, and granting students influence over university decisions and the content and delivery of course curricula)
Round 7: This house believes that Western institutions should neither cooperate with, nor use the data produced by, non-Western medical institutions that do not meet Western standards on human clinical trials

Round 8: This house believes that LGBT groups should actively seek to include Side B Christians. Info slide: Side B Christians are Christians who identify as experiencing same sex attraction but nevertheless believe that homosexual sex is sinful and therefore attempt to remain celibate.
Round 9: This house supports the creation and use of Lethal Autonomous Robots (Lethal Autonomous Robots are fully autonomous military weapons that can select and engage targets without human intervention).

WSDC 2017 Indonesia

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The tournament started on the 1st of August and is going on right now. As for now we only have the prepared motions, and the pairing of the teams. The pairing you can see on the picture, and here are the prepared motions. As the tournament goes on, we will add all the impromptu motions, so that you can discuss them in the comments!

Here are the motions (Prepared motions are marked as bold:
Preliminary Round 1: This house would ban for-profit universities and colleges
Preliminary Round 2: Impromptu, waiting on the motion
Preliminary Round 3: This house would deny tax-exempt status to religious institutions that refuse to appoint female leaders
Preliminary Round 4: Impromptu, waiting on the motion
Preliminary Round 5: This house would make labor union membership compulsory in large industries
Preliminary Round 6: Impromptu, waiting on the motion
Preliminary Round 7: This house believes that the NATO Enhanced Forward Presence in Eastern Europe does more harm than good
Preliminary Round 8: Impromptu

So, how do you like the motions. What is your favourite?

Desmond Tutu quotes

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Desmond Tutu is a known social rights activist, mainly known by his own engagement in the Apartheit time. Here are his famous quotes that you can use in debates and other speaches.

“Do your little bit of good where you are; it’s those little bits of good put together that overwhelm the world.”

“If you are neutral in situations of injustice, you have chosen the side of the oppressor. If an elephant has its foot on the tail of a mouse, and you say that you are neutral, the mouse will not appreciate your neutrality.”

“We may be surprised at the people we find in heaven. God has a soft spot for sinners. His standards are quite low.”

“My father always used to say, “Don’t raise your voice. Improve your argument.” Good sense does not always lie with the loudest shouters, nor can we say that a large, unruly crowd is always the best arbiter of what is right.”

“Differences are not intended to separate, to alienate. We are different precisely in order to realize our need of one another.”

“If you want to make peace, you don’t talk to your friends. You talk to your enemies.”

“When the missionaries came to Africa they had the Bible and we had the land. They said “Let us pray.” We closed our eyes. When we opened them we had the Bible and they had the land.”

“We learn from history that we don’t learn from history!”

“When we see others as the enemy, we risk becoming what we hate. When we oppress others, we end up oppressing ourselves. All of our humanity is dependent upon recognizing the humanity in others.”

“Religion is like a knife: you can either use it to cut bread, or stick in someone’s back.”

“We were made to enjoy music, to enjoy beautiful sunsets, to enjoy looking at the billows of the sea and to be thrilled with a rose that is bedecked with dew… Human beings are actually created for the transcendent, for the sublime, for the beautiful, for the truthful… and all of us are given the task of trying to make this world a little more hospitable to these beautiful things.”

“You don’t choose your family. They are God’s gift to you, as you are to them.”

“Dear Child of God, I am sorry to say that suffering is not optional.”

“Language is very powerful. Language does not just describe reality. Language creates the reality it describes.”

“We are made for goodness. We are made for love. We are made for friendliness. We are made for togetherness. We are made for all of the beautiful things that you and I know. We are made to tell the world that there are no outsiders. All are welcome: black, white, red, yellow, rich, poor, educated, not educated, male, female, gay, straight, all, all, all. We all belong to this family, this human family, God’s family.”

“If you are neutral in situations of injustice, you have chosen the side of the oppressor.”

“Like when you sit in front of a fire in winter — you are just there in front of the fire. You don’t have to be smart or anything. The fire warms you.”

“Though wrong gratifies in the moment, good yields its gifts over a lifetime.”

“A person with ubuntu is open and available to others, affirming of others, does not feel threatened that others are able and good, for he or she has a proper self-assurance that comes from knowing that he or she belongs in a greater whole and is diminished when others are humiliated or diminished, when others are tortured or oppressed.”

“We are made for loving. If we don’t love, we will be like plants without water.”

“Out of the cacophony of random suffering and chaos that can mark human life, the life artist sees or creates a symphony of meaning and order. A life of wholeness does not depend on what we experience. Wholeness depends on how we experience our lives.”

“There is nothing more difficult than waking someone who is only pretending to be asleep.”

“If you want to keep people subjugated, the last thing you place in their hands is a Bible. There’s nothing more radical, nothing more revolutionary, nothing more subversive against injustice and oppression than the Bible.”

“A person is a person through other persons; you can’t be human in isolation; you are human only in relationships.”

“Ubuntu […] speaks of the very essence of being human. [We] say […] “Hey, so-and-so has ubuntu.” Then you are generous, you are hospitable, you are friendly and caring and compassionate. You share what you have. It is to say, “My humanity is caught up, is inextricably bound up, in yours.” We belong in a bundle of life. We say, “A person is a person through other persons.”

[…] A person with ubuntu is open and available to others, affirming of others, does not feel threatened that others are able and good, for he or she has a proper self-assurance that comes from knowing that he or she belongs in a greater whole and is diminished when others are humiliated or diminished, when others are tortured or oppressed, or treated as if they were less than who they are.”

“It is through weakness and vulnerability that most of us learn empathy and compassion and discover our soul.”

“We must be ready to learn from one another, not claiming that we alone possess all truth and that somehow we have a corner on God.”

“It always comes back to our insecurities, as we say, “Oh, I’m not as good as you.” So instead of accepting that perhaps I am not as good as someone else in some ways and being comfortable with who I am as I am, I spend all my time denigrating you, trying to cut you down to my self-perceived size. The sad problem is that we see ourselves as being quite terribly small. Instead of spending my time being envious, I need to celebrate your and my different gifts, even if mine are perhaps less spectacular than yours.”

“Our maturity will be judged by how well we are able to agree to disagree and yet continue to love one another, to care for one another, and cherish one another and seek the greater good of the other.”

“Give a man a fish and feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and feed him for a lifetime. Teach a man to cycle and he will realize fishing is stupid and boring.”

“To be neutral in a situation of injustice is to have chosen sides already. It is to support the status quo.”

“Be nice to whites, they need you to rediscover their humanity.”

“But suffering from a life-threatening disease also helped me have a different attitude and perspective. It has given a new intensity to life, for I realize how much I used to take for granted-the love and devotion of my wife, the laughter and playfulness of my grandchildren, the glory of a splendid sunset, the dedication of my colleagues. The disease has helped me acknowledge my own mortality, with deep thanksgiving for the extraordinary things that have happened in my life, not least in recent times. What a spectacular vindication it has been, in the struggle against apartheid, to live to see freedom come, to have been involved in finding the truth and reconciling the differences of those who are the future of our nation.”

“It may be a procession of faithful failures that enriches the soil of godly success. Faithful actions are not religious acts. They are not even necessary actions undertaken by people of faith. Faithful actions, whether they are marked by success or they end in failure, are actions that are compelled by goodness.”

“If you are neutral in situations of injustice, you have chosen the side of the oppressor. If an elephant has its foot on the tail of a mouse and you say that you are neutral, the mouse will not appreciate your neutrality”

“God is not a diversion.”

“To forgive is not just to be altruistic.”

“… freedom translates into having a supply of clean water, having electricity on tap; being able to live in a decent home and have a good job; to be able to send your children to school and to have accessible healthcare. I mean what’s the point of having made this transition if the quality of life … is not enhanced and improved? If not, the vote is useless.”

“My message to the international community is that our silence and complicity especially on the situation in Gaza shames us all. It is almost like the behaviour of the military junta in Burma”

“A person is a person because s/he recognizes others as persons.”

“We shall be free only together, black and white. We shall survive only together, black and white. We can be human only together, black and white.”

“True peace must be anchored in justice and an unwavering commitment to universal rights for all humans, regardless of ethnicity, religion, gender, national origin or any other identity attribute.”

“When God grabs you by the scruff of the neck then although theoretically you have a freedom to say ‘no’, in another sense, actually, you can’t say no because it’s like Jeremiah. ‘God, you have cheated me. You called me to be a prophet against the people that I love, and all that I proclaim is words of doom and judgement.’ And yet if I say “I will shut up”, I can’t.”

Istanbul Meridyen Debating Academy

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The Turkey debate tournament was held 3-4 September 2016 in Istanbul, Turkey. It was CA’ed by a great team, namely Melda Eren (CA), Monica Forman (CA), Nika Jelendorf (CA), Rebecca Irvine (CA).

Here are the motions that were debated:

Round 1: This house believes that governments should strictly regulate construction and renovation in order to preserve historical architecture (buildings, parks, public spaces etc).
Round 2: This house would ban self-learning sex robots that aim to be highly gratifying and realistic
Round 3: This house would permanently remove from service Imams who are stationed in places where an honour killing has occured
Round 4: This house would not use scientific data acquired through non-ethical experiments

Final: Infoslide: Husartsan was the first memorial monument dedicated to the victims of the ‘Armenian Tragedy’. It was erected in 1919 near Taksim Square in Istanbul, on the premises of a former Armenian Cemetary. In 1922, during the occupation of Istanbul, the monument was dismantled and subsequently lost under unknown circumstances. Recently, President Erdogan has declared Turkey the “most meaningful place” to commemorate the ‘Armenian Tragedy’, which Ankara does not recognize as genocide.
Motion: This house would rebuild the Husartsan memorial


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ROUND 1: “Gurlie”
– This house celebrates the “fetishization” of the LGBT in porn (men who watch lesbian porn; women who watch gay porn; shemale)
– This house would fabricate evidence in order to create the impression that historical icons had been gay
– Info slide: A study conducted by Cambridge University describes the role of genetic regulators which influences whether an immature germ cell differentiates into a male or female cell, and how that process can be manipulated. In the future, it is possible for stem cells from a male to be used to produce an egg, allowing an infant to have two biological fathers. Motion: Assuming feasibility, This house believes that the state should heavily subsidize the access to “2-father babies”.

ROUND 2 : “Givenchi kokoli datung”
– This house will impose minimum educational qualification as a requirement to stock market participation
-Info slide: A charter city involves a developing country giving a long term lease on a small area of land to a developed country. The developed country will build and govern a new city for a pre-determined period of time. Motion: This house would establish charter cities in developing countries
– This house will repeal all laws requiring mandatory remittances from Overseas workers

ROUND 3 : “taralets penpen de chorvaloo”
– This house would include E-sports in the Olympics
– This house will allow organized fight clubs
– This house supports the integration of moral choices in games

– This house will go back in time and save Jesus Christ from crucifixion
– This house believes that the Ministry of Magic should require wizards to live in muggle communities
– In case of a zombie-epidemic, This house believes that zombies have a right to a humane life in special zombie-habitats

ROUND 5 : “Huling push? K mo yan ‘teh!”
– Info slide: Kevin really hates Charles. For four years, Kevin meticulously planned how to kill Charles, and he learned that Charles loves eating Lechon belly. Last night, Kevin gave Charles a cyanide laced lechon belly which Charles ate heartedly. To Kevin’s surprise, he saw Charles the next day happy, blooming and healthy. It turns out that Charles is immune to cyanide. Motion:  This house will still charge Kevin with Murder.
– This house will repeal all laws that criminalize any form of speech (Libelous,Seditious, Discriminatory, Slanderous, Defamation)
– This house would not afford religious identity the same level of anti-discrimination protection as inborn traits (ex. race and *sexuality)

QUARTERS: “ Ms. International”
– This house believes that the EU should ban its member states from selling arms to former Soviet States
– This house would make the ratification of the ICC charter as a pre-condition for UNSC membership
– This house believes that the United Nations should tax the profits of all natural resource sales worldwide.

SEMIS : “”Charles is the new Char! Charles!”
– Assuming the technology exists which allows an absolute “mind wipe”, This house would allow convicted criminals to choose it as penalty over incarceration
– If Vatican discovers evidence that the Judeo-Christian God is female, this house will destroy it
– Aromantic is the lack of of romantic attraction towards anyone.TH prefers an Aromantic world

Finals : Madam Josie Rizal
– This house regrets the conception of a National Hero (debated)
– This house believes that Philippines should abandon its claim on Sabah in exchange for Malaysia’s support to the Philippines’ claim to the West Philippine Sea.
– This house will give more votes to those who pay higher income tax

Philippine Debate Open 2015

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Round 1: Minorities
– This house would prohibit disadvantaged groups from being portrayed as antagonists in fictional media
– This house believes that sexually provocative female celebrities, who publicly identify as feminists, harm the movement
– This house believes that social media sites should not limit the sexual expressions of its users

Round 2: Expression
– This house believes that protesters should not fight for their causes anonymously
– This house believes that movements should manufacture martyrs for the greater good of their cause
– This house would allow corporations to enforce their religious identity, including but not limited to, the denial of goods and services

Round 3: Development Economics
Info Slide: Quantitative easing (QE) is a type of monetary policy used by central banks to stimulate the economy when standard monetary policy has become ineffective. A central bank implements quantitative easing by buying specified amounts of financial assets from commercial banks and other private institutions, thus raising the prices of those financial assets, while simultaneously increasing the money supply. Part of the increased money supply flows to emerging markets. Motion: This house believes that quantitative easing has done more harm than good in emerging markets
– This house would progressively tax the extraction of non-renewable natural resources
– This house would allow individuals to select which welfare services to consume, subject to a maximum monetary value per individual

Round 4: Socio-Legal
Info Slide: The privilege against self-incrimination prevents the government from forcing an accused person or a witness to testify against himself. Any self-incriminating testimony, without their consent, is inadmissible in court. An individual can refuse to answer questions that he/she believes will incriminate him/her. The prosecutor may not comment on his/her silence. Motion: In areas with high crime rates, THW implement a zero-tolerance policy for petty offenses
– This house would abolish the privilege against self-incrimination
– This house would allow society to pardon political crimes (sedition, treason, rebellion, and other crimes against the state) via referenda

Round 5: Science and Society
Info Slide: Henrietta Lacks (1920-1951) was a woman whose cancer cells were “immortal” (could regenerate indefinitely, as opposed to normal cells with a shelf life of a few days). Unknown to the Lacks family until researchers investigated further into their family genetics decades later, a sample of her cells was cultivated by a research lab, producing about 20 tons of HeLa cells to date. These cells have been used to research into vaccines (i.e. the cure for polio), cancer, gene mapping, toxic testing, and countless other scientific pursuits. There are more than 10,000 patents that have some point used HeLa cells in their development. Motion: THW allow the Lacks family to patent the HeLa cell
– With the consent of all relevant individuals, This house would suspend scientific ethics in favor of scientific advancement
– Assuming feasibility, This house believes that states should temporarily neuter the emotional inhibitions of their soldiers

Round 6: Conflict
– This house believes that the United States should grant asylum to individuals who actively associate with & significantly participate in US military efforts in conflict zones, such as military interpreters and local troops
This house believes that Muslim states should lead in the war against ISIS
In hindsight, This house would not have established the state of Israel

Open Octofinals: Religion
– This house would allow children who have reached the age of majority to sue their parents for religious indoctrination
– This house regrets religion’s reliance on miracles in promoting their faith
– This house supports religious missionaries that proselytize in economically depressed communities

Open Quarterfinals & High School Semifinals: Culture and Art
Info Slide: Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) was a British businessman, mining magnate, and politician in South Africa. As an ardent believer in British colonialism, Rhodes founded the south African territory of Rhodesia, South Africa’s Rhodes University, and the Rhodes Scholarship. Rhodes was an integral participant in South African colonization. Last week, the University of Cape Town bowed to student protests and removed a prominent memorial statue of Rhodes. Motion: This house celebrates the demolition of the Cecil Rhodes statue
– This house believes that prestigious art galleries that market to the rich do more harm than good to the art industry
– In multi-ethnic countries, This house would set minimum ethnic diversity quotas in residential areas

Open Semifinals & HS Grand Finals: International Relations
– As Greece, This house would prefer the political and economic assistance of Russia over the EU’s
– This house believes that Western liberal democracies should subsidize the operations of their multinational corporations in African states to challenge the growing Chinese economic interests in the region
– This house believes that the ASEAN should pursue deeper political integration, including but not limited to the removal of the non-interventionist policy and the enforcement of the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration

Grand Finals: Women
– This house regrets the Dove “Real Beauty” campaign
– This house believes that the law regarding abortion should be decided in a women-only referendum
– In pursuit of true and meaningful liberation of women, This house believes that feminists should abandon organized religion

Philippine Inter-Collegiate Debating Championship 2015 Motions

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Test Debate
This house believes that feminists should support the sexual objectification of men

Round 1 (Education)
This house believes that state funding for public schools should be contingent on the performance of their students in standardized tests
This house believes that universities should allow their students to choose the method of assessment (e.g., written test, group project, research paper, etc.) for the subjects/courses that they take
This house celebrates the notion of a “corporate sell out”

Round 2 (Media & Information)
This house believest that media practitioners should publicly disclose their political party affiliations
This house believes that western liberal democracies should compel social networking sites and search engines to actively filter content supporting terrorism
This house, as an academic researcher who is a supporter of a specific political party, would not publish research which contradicts or weakens my party’s policies

Round 3 (Sports)
This house believes that sporting leagues should prevent their clubs from breaching a fixed salary cap
This house would prohibit athletes from expressing their political beliefs at sporting events
This house would require sporting leagues to provide financial support to players after retirement

Round 4 (Geopolitics)
This house celebrates Syriza’s victory
As Turkey, This house would recognize the Armenian Genocide
This house would recognize an independent state of Kurdistan

Round 5 (Economics)
This house believes that the United States should subsidize its domestic oil fracking firms
This house would break up banks which are deemed “too big to fail”
THBT the allies of the United States should revoke their support for the China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
Round 6 (Social Policy)
THBT all information regarding any individual’s wealth should be publicly available
THBT governments should suppress all research that attempts to create strong artificial intelligence (Info slide: Strong artificial intelligence (strong AI) is the intelligence of an artificial being that could successfully perform any intellectual task that a human being can. It is the ability to perform “general intelligent action”. Strong AI is oftentimes distinguished from weak AI (definition: the use of software to study or accomplish specific problem solving or reasoning tasks). Weak AI, in contrast to strong AI, does not attempt to simulate the full range of human cognitive abilities.)
THW abolish the doctrine of jury nullification (Info slide: Jury nullification is a doctrine in criminal law that allows a jury to acquit (i.e., to give a verdict of “not guilty”) a defendant despite its belief that the accused is guilty of the crime charged. The jury in effect nullifies a law that it believes is either immoral or wrongly applied to the defendant whose fate they are charged with deciding.)
Round 7 (Governance and Politics)
TH prefers a prosperous autocracy over a fragile democracy
THW declare a failure of elections based on the low voter turnout of racial minorities
THW require candidates for public office to possess a college degree
Sinag Semifinals (Religion)
THBT the LGBT movement should stop biblical interpretations that portray gays in a positive light
THW compel the Church to compensate Catholics who contract HIV
THBT the Church should excommunicate politicians who are convicted of corruption
Sinag Grand Finals (Philippines)
THW not support the Bangsamoro Basic Law
In developing countries, THW require recent college graduates to work in government for a certain period of time
TH regrets the AFP’s modernization program as a response to Chinese aggression
Octofinals (Development)
THBT all idle land should be returned to the state
THW give veto power to indigenous peoples over resource-extraction ventures
THW ban the advertising of consumer credit products in developing countries
Quarterfinals (Conflict)
THBT it is high time for the United States to abandon all support to Israel
THW require recipients of military and security aid to include women in their armed forces
THBT it is legitimate for states to lie about armed conflicts & humanitarian crises
Semifinals (Gender)
In liberal democracies, THBT the LGBT movement should not respect the choice to remain in the closet
TH, as the feminist movement, would support female politicians who belong to conservative parties
THW ban pro-life protests in the proximity of abortion clinics
Grand Finals (Climate Change)
THBT microfinance institutions should heavily prioritize ventures that have environmentally sustainable business operations
As a developing state, THBT individuals and firms should be subjected to a cap on electricity consumption from non-renewable energy sources
As major polluters, THBT there is a moral obligation to grant automatic citizenship to individuals who will become stateless because of climate change